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Caribbean Transitional Energy Conference Announced

The Caribbean Transitionary Energy Conference (CTEC2017) was officially launched this morning with a press conference at The Cayman Islands Government building this morning.

Remarks were given by Hon. D. Kurt Tibbetts OBE, JP, MLA – Cayman Islands Minister for Planning, Lands, Agriculture, Housing and Infrastructure, event organiser James Whittaker – CEO, GreenTech Group and President, Cayman Renewable Energy Association (CREA), and sponsor Pilar Bush, Executive Vice President of Marketing, Dart Enterprises Ltd. To Register and for more information Click Here
#centreofexcellence #caymanislands

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Caribbean Transitional Energy Conference

WHY CAYMAN? WHY NOW?

Caribbean economies suffer from some of the highest electricity prices in the world. Despite their abundance of renewable energy sources, Cayman has a relatively low level of renewable energy penetration; the economy continues to spend a large proportion of its GDP on imported fossil fuels.

The Caribbean Transitional Energy Conference (CTEC) is about building our resilience as a small nation, about diversifying our energy sector and the way that we do business.

It is about ensuring sustainable social and economic growth through strong leadership, recognising the threat of climate change and the vulnerability of islands across the world and voicing our commitment to take the measures that we can take now. More

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Op-Ed: The Challenge of Small Island Developing States

The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States defines small island developing states, or SIDS, as “a distinct group of developing countries facing specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities.”

These countries are across the globe in the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and the Mediterranean and South China Sea.

In addition to common difficulties faced by developing countries, SIDS have an additional series of challenges to cope with that require special assistance from the international community.

These challenges were highlighted in the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) and the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation (MSI) of 2005, both of which stated that the difficulties SIDS face in the pursuit of sustainable development are particularly severe and complex.

Recognition of these issues was reinforced in September of 2014 when Member States of the United Nations officially adopted the Small Island Developing States Accelerated Modalities of Action, known as the SAMOA Pathway.

The challenges that SIDSs face are varied, but all conspire to constrain their development processes.

They typically do not have a wide base of resources available to them, and thus do not benefit from cost advantages that this could potentially generate.

Coupled with small domestic markets, they experience difficulties in profiting from globalisation and trade liberalisation and are cripplingly reliant on external and remote markets with limited opportunities for the private sectors.

The cost of provision of energy, infrastructure, transport and communication are high, and along with high population densities, creates increased pressure on these already limited markets.

These developing countries generally have a heavy reliance on tourism and services; however, as a consequence of their low resilience and location, they are also heavily affected by disasters due to frequent natural hazards.

The unique characteristics and vulnerabilities facing SIDS were first addressed by the international community at the Earth Summit (United Nations (UN) Conference on Environment and Development) in Brazil in 1992.

The SIDS case was the focus of Agenda 21, a non-binding, voluntarily implemented plan of action of the Summit, committed to addressing the problems of sustainable development of SIDS.

This plan involved adopting methods to enable SIDS to function and cope effectively with environmental change, and to mitigate the impacts and reduce the threats posed to their marine and coastal resources.

Following Agenda 21, the Barbados Programme of Action was introduced in 1994, in an effort to provide further aid and support to SIDS. Similarly, its ultimate aim was to improve sustainable development.

It highlighted the challenges of converting Agenda 21 into precise strategies, movements and procedures at the national, regional and international level and listed fifteen areas of priority for specific action.

Five further areas were selected by the UN General Assembly in 1999, recognising their urgency. These five were: climate change, as the rising sea level could render some low-lying SIDS submerged; natural and environmental disasters and climate variability, with an emphasis of improving disaster preparedness and recovery; freshwater resources, preventing water shortages as demand increases; coastal and marine resources, promoting the protection of coastal ecosystems and coral reefs; energy, developing solar and renewable energy in order to lessen dependence on imported oil; and finally tourism, focusing on the management of the growth of the tourism industry and the protection of the environment and cultural integrity.

The 2005 Mauritius Strategy of Implementation further complemented the BPOA.

It gave recognition to the challenges that are unique to SIDS, and proposed further action towards their sustainable development.

The MSI emphasised the location of SIDS in the most vulnerable regions of the world with respect to natural and environmental disasters and their rapidly increasing impact.

It made call for a global early warning system covering threats such as tsunamis, storm surges and cyclones, and stressed that some major adverse effects of climate change are already being observed.

Further, the MSI recognised the importance of international trade for building resilience and sustainable development in SIDS, and established the necessity for international institutions, including financial ones, to pay more specific attention to the structural drawbacks of SIDS.

The MSI went further on matters of trade, stating that “most small island developing states, as a result of their smallness, persistent structural disadvantages and vulnerabilities, face specific difficulties in integrating into the global economy”.

More recently, in September 2014, the Small Island Developing States Accelerated Modalities of Action, also known as the SAMOA Pathway, was adopted. As in the case of the previous adoptions, the strategy recognises the need to support and invest in SIDS so that they can achieve sustainable development. Distinguishing the Samoa Pathway slightly from the BPOA and the MSI is the idea of investing in the education and training of the people of SIDS.

The aim of this idea was to create “resilient societies and economies, with full and productive employment, social protection and decent work for all”, and to provide “full and equal access to quality education at all levels”, the latter which is a vital ingredient for achieving sustainable development.

The promotion of education for sustainable development is especially crucial for SIDS that are under direct threat from climate change, as it will “empower communities to make informed decisions for sustainable living rooted in both science and traditional knowledge”. Finally, the SAMOA Pathway supports efforts “to promote and preserve cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue, which provide a mechanism for social cohesion and, thus, are essential in building blocks for addressing the challenges of social development”.

Many SIDS have recognized the need to embrace sustainability through their own internal processes, however, without external aid from the international community, the required change will not come quickly enough. Following on the adoption of the Samoa Pathway, 2015 is rapidly becoming a watershed year for global processes of importance to SIDS.

Convergence is occurring across a broad spectrum of activities as this year has seen the international community deliberate on the Post 2015 framework for disaster risk reduction which culminated in the adoption of the Sendai Framework, new expected agreements in the post 2015 development agenda with Sustainable Development Goals replacing the Millennium Development Goals. New agreements are also expected on how development is financed and there remains expectation of a new international agreement on climate change.

Given their far reaching impact, these developments are critical, particularly when viewed from the perspective of the small island developing state.

Notwithstanding the global consensus, serious challenges remain for SIDS and for the foreseeable future; they will remain a special case for sustainable development.

However, with a global consensus and an avid commitment to the advancement of sustainable development in these countries, positive change is most certainly on the horizon.

George Nicholson is the Director of Transport and Disaster Risk Reduction and Anastasia Ramjag is the Research Assistant of the Directorate of Transport and Disaster Risk Reduction of the Association of Caribbean States.

Note: the opinions expressed in Caribbean Journal Op-Eds are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Caribbean Journal. More

 

 

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July 2015 Sustainable Energy Finance Update

1 August 2015: During the month of July, the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the European Investment Bank (EIB), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the World Bank announced sustainable energy project funding and initiatives.


The Asian Development Bank (ADB), AfDB, the European Commission, EIB and the World Bank also released publications on financing and deploying clean energy

The announced sustainable energy initiatives are being implemented in Anguilla, Argentina, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chile, Denmark, France, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Montenegro, Spain, Turkey, the UK, Ukraine, Uruguay, Zambia and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.


In Argentina, IDB approved US$14.4 million in financing from the GEF for a housing project that integrates energy efficiency and renewable energy to improve the quality of life of residents and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Using renewable energy schemes adapted for each of Argentina's eight bio-climactic zones, 128 prototypes will be built and monitored for a year. US$70.7 million in local funds and a US$1 million IDB technical cooperation grant will also support the project. [IDB Press Release]


In Burkina Faso, AfDB granted €25.35 million from the African Development Fund (ADF) to support the programme for budget support in the energy sector (PASE). The funds will be largely directed to improving the electricity supply for basic social sectors, public services, the private sector and households. The funds are intended to increase reliability and energy access, as just 17.6% of the population currently has access to electricity. [AfDB Press Release]


In Cambodia, the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) launched a project promoting commercial biogas plants with US$1.5 million in funding from the GEF. The project aims to increase rural electrification and energy access by installing plants with 1.5 MW in cumulative generation capacity and mitigate climate change by avoiding 1.3 megatons carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) in emissions directly and 3.3 MtCO2e indirectly over 15 years. [UNIDO Press Release]


In Chile, the World Bank Group's International Finance Corporation (IFC) signed an agreement with Banco Consorcio in support of non-conventional renewable energy projects. Under the agreement, IFC will provide a US$60 million credit line to finance, inter alia, small hydropower, biomass, solar, geothermal and wind. [IFC Press Release]


In Denmark, EIB announced the first transaction in the country under the Investment Plan for Europe: up to €75 million in equity-like financing to Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners (CIP) for the Copenhagen Infrastructure II fund. The fund is an “innovative” renewable energy infrastructure fund focusing primarily on newly established greenfield energy-related investments, such as large-scale offshore wind, biomass and transmission projects, in Western and Northern Europe. [EIB Press Release]


In France, EIB undertook its first equity participation under the Investment Plan for Europe, providing €50 million for Capenergie 3, an investment fund dedicated to renewables and managed by Omnes Capital. It is anticipated that the investment will finance 500 MW of generating capacity. [EIB Press Release]


In Georgia, EBRD facilitated the sale of over 400,000 carbon credits from the Enguri Hydro Power Plant to Statkraft, a Norwegian electricity company. EBRD's Carbon Project and Asset Development Facility (CPADF) provided technical assistance for the sales strategy and emissions reductions verification. The project, registered under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), was able to partially recover costs associated with carbon project development through the sale of the credits. [EBRD Press Release]


In Guinea-Bissau, AfDB announced the approval of a €9 million loan and a €7.7 million grant for a three-year programme aimed at reducing daily power outages and increasing electricity access in the capital, Bissau. The funding will connect 10,500 new subscribers to electricity, rehabilitate facilities for 31,000 existing subscribers, improve the efficiency of the system's infrastructure and improve management and governance of the National Electricity and Water Corporation. [AfDB Press Release]


In Kenya, the World Bank's Climate Investment Funds (CIF) approved US$218,000 for the second tranche of the Electricity Modernization Project under the Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low-Income Countries Program (SREP). The funds are for implementation and supervision services for the project, which is aimed at increasing electricity access and reliability in the country. [CIF Document Page] [Project Proposal]


In Mali, IFC and Scatec Solar announced a partnership to develop the US$55 million Scatec Segou solar power project in cooperation with Africa Power 1. IFC is investing US$12.5 million in the 33-MW plant, in addition to taking on a 20% equity stake in the project company for US$2.5 million. The project will support Mali's goals of increasing the share of electricity generated from renewables and enhancing energy supply and access. [IFC Press Release]


In Montenegro, EBRD is providing a senior secured loan of up to €48.5 million to Krnovo Green Energy, a subsidiary of the French company, Akuo Energy, to develop the country's first commercial wind farm. KfW Development Bank is providing an equivalent loan for the 72-MW plant through its subsidiary, KfW IPEX-Bank. [EBRD Press Release]


In Spain, EIB granted the Spanish company Abengoa a €125 million loan for research, development and innovation (RDI) activities related to, inter alia, advanced electrical systems and renewable energies. The company's RDI programme is focused on clean/green energy and environmental technology breakthroughs that significantly benefit the environment. [EIB Press Release]


In Turkey, EBRD announced US$180 million in financing for mid-sized renewable energy projects, including solar, hydropower, wind, geothermal, waste-to-energy and energy efficiency. The funds, sourced from the Turkey Mid-Size Sustainable Energy Financing Facility (MidSEFF), will be on-lent by Turkey's Garanti Bank and Yapi Kredi Bank to private sector companies. [EBRD Press Release]


Also in Turkey, IFC approved a US$75 million long-term financing package for energy efficiency investments by the Turkish flat glass manufacturer, Trakya Cam. The company will use the funds for improving waste heat recovery and rehabilitating furnaces in plants located in both Turkey and Bulgaria. In addition to significantly reducing costs, the project is expected to cut GHG emissions by over 60,000 tons annually. [IFC Press Release]


In the UK, the National Trust, a conservation charity, revealed plans to invest £30 million in renewable energy projects, including a 200-kilowatt (kW) lake source heating project, two biomass boilers and a 250-kW hydropower project. [National Trust Press Release]


In Ukraine, the Nordic Environment Finance Corporation (NEFCO) signed five grant agreements for five cities in the eastern part of the country to implement energy efficiency measures. The funding is sourced from the NEFCO-administered Nordic Energy Efficiency and Humanitarian Support Initiative (NIU), which focuses on refurbishing municipal buildings and social infrastructure, especially schools, day care centers and health centers, in vulnerable areas of eastern and southern Ukraine. [NEFCO Press Release]


Also in Ukraine, medium and large municipalities will benefit from EIB loans totaling €400 million for 25-40 public infrastructure energy efficiency projects. The funds will be directed to central, regional or local government agencies, public utilities and municipalities by the Ministry of Regional Development, Construction, Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine. EIB's financing will cover up to 50% of total costs, with supplementary financing coming from other international financial institutions (IFIs). [EIB Press Release]


In Uruguay, US$55.7 million in loans from IDB will finance six solar PV plants, totaling 69.9 MW in generating capacity. The IDB-administered China Co-Financing Fund and the Canadian Climate Fund for the Private Sector are co-financing the project with additional loans of US$19.3 million and US$10 million, respectively. Producing an estimated 154.4 gigawatt-hours (GWh) per year, the plants will reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 74,000 tons annually. [IDB Press Release]


In Zambia, IFC signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) of Zambia to explore development of the country's first utility scale PV projects as part of IFC's Scaling Solar programme. The two 50-MW projects would help address a hydropower shortfall caused by low rainfall. [IFC Press Release]


In the MENA region, IFC announced a US$25 million investment for renewable energy projects, especially wind and solar plants. The investment takes the form of equity in Alcazar Energy, which will develop and operate the projects in Africa, the Middle East and Turkey. [IFC Press Release]


On publications, ADB released three volumes in a series on power planning as part of the ADB project ‘Ensuring Sustainability of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Regional Power Development.' The series explains how strategic environmental assessment contributes to better policymaking in the power sector, how indicators are used to analyze power development plans, and how sustainability assessment and the consideration of wider impacts can affect decisions in power planning. [ADB Press Release, Vol 1] [Integrating Strategic Environmental Assessment into Power Planning] [ADB Press Release, Vol 2] [Identifying Sustainability Indicators of Strategic Environmental Assessment for Power Planning] [ADB Press Release, Vol 3] [How Strategic Environmental Assessment Can Influence Power Development Plans: Comparing Alternative Energy Scenarios for Power Planning in the GMS]


ADB also published a series of three reports on the potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency in the GMS. The publications are part of a study under the ADB project ‘Promoting Renewable Energy, Clean Fuels, and Energy Efficiency in the GMS.' [ADB Press Release, Report 1] [Renewable Energy Developments and Potential for the GMS] [ADB Press Release, Report 2] [Energy Efficiency Developments and Potential Energy Savings in the GMS] [ADB Press Release, Report 3] [Business Models to Realize the Potential of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in the GMS]


AfDB released the Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa (SEFA) annual report, highlighting that it reached US$6.5 million in commitments in its project portfolio in 2014. The report also underscores achievements such as launching the Africa Renewable Energy Fund, distributing enabling environment grants to help attract private sector investment and co-sponsoring the Second West Africa Forum for Clean Energy Financing (WAFCEF-2) business plan competition. [AfDB Press Release] [SEFA 2014 Annual Report]


The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) issued its 2014 wind status report, finding that wind meets 8% of Europe's electricity demand and predicting a 12% electricity share by 2020. With a focus on the EU, the report outlines the state of the economics, market and technology in the wind sector, with relevant comparisons to other regions. [JRC Press Release] [2014 JRC Wind Status Report]


EIB released an information brief on Africa's energy challenges, describing EIB's financial and technical support for the continent's efforts to build accessible and efficient power generation from sustainable sources. According to the brief, almost 25% of EIB operations in Sub-Saharan Africa and more than 33% in North Africa are dedicated to the renewable energy sector. [EIB Press Release] [Tackling the Energy Challenge in Africa]


EIB also released the annual report of the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund, which highlights the significant renewable energy investments of the Fund, including €33 million for the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. [EIB Press Release] [EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund 2014 Annual Report]


The World Bank, in partnership with Bank of America Merrill Lynch, the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) and the SE4All Finance Committee, published recommendations for increasing the world's investment in clean energy. The report suggests four thematic areas that could collectively mobilize US$120 billion. [World Bank Press Release] [SE4All Press Release] [UN Press Release] [Scaling Up Finance for Sustainable Energy Investments] [IISD RS Story]


The World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) conducted wind resource mapping in Tanzania and published the interim results. [Wind Resource Mapping in Tanzania: Candidate Site Identification Report]


The World Bank also released a study highlighting the positive energy access outcomes that can be achieved through energy efficiency measures. The report recommends factoring energy efficiency into development projects, based on an examination of eight recent World Bank projects. [World Bank Press Release] [EA + EE: Enhancing the World Bank's Energy Access Investments Through Energy Efficiency]


On events, IDB hosted an event, titled ‘LAC2025: Water Energy Food and Mining Nexus,' on 6 July 2015. The event considered how resource-related policy decisions today will affect future generations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Topics ranged from the depletion of aquifers and water pollution to resource rights. [IDB Event Announcement]


The World Bank sponsored an Indian delegation's visit to Brazil to learn about the country's experience in scaling up renewable energy to meet growing demand. As a result of the exchange, the two countries are working toward an MoU to cooperate on matters related to integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. [World Bank Press Release]


Climate finance news and developments outside of the sustainable energy sector are published in IISD RS's monthly Climate Finance Update, available via the Climate Change Policy & Practice portal. [IISD RS Climate Finance Updates]



read more: http://larc.iisd.org/news/july-2015-sustainable-energy-finance-update/


 

 

 

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Caribbean States ‘lighting path’ towards sustainable future, says UN chief in Barbados

“I want to salute Caribbean countries for taking on ambitious renewable energy targets. By 2020, for example, Barbados will be one of the world’s top five leading users of solar energy on a per capita basis. You are lighting the path to the future,


Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon My main message to you is to remain fully engaged and keep working with us to strengthen our partnership during this vital year for humanity. Together, we can build a better, more sustainable world, for all.said during a high-level symposium focused on sustainable development in the Caribbean.

This meeting was among the UN chief’s first stops in Barbados, where later on Thursdayhe is expected to make opening remarks to the 2015 Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Summit, and where tomorrow, he will, among others, hold an interactive dialogue at the University of the West Indies.


“Twenty years ago, this very building was the site of the First Global Conference on Small Island Developing States that adopted the Barbados Programme of Action – the first compact between this group and the international community,” he noticed


For small island developing States, Ban added, this space is “hallowed ground.”

Encouraged by the presence of so many leaders of governments, regional and international organizations, the private sector, academia, and civil society, the Secretary-General highlighted the “continuing Caribbean commitment to put our world on a safer, more sustainable and equitable pathway,” a few days from theThird International Conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

“As leaders of some of the most vulnerable countries in the world, you don’t need to be told that our planet is at grave risk. You are on the climate frontlines. You see it every day,” he continued.

Convinced that sustainable development and climate change are “two sides of the same coin,” the UN top official went on to say that this generation could be the first to end global poverty, and the last to prevent the worst impacts of global warming “before it is too late.”


To get there, he underlined, the international community must make sure that the proposed sustainable development goals (SDGs) are “focused, financed and followed up – with real targets, real money and a real determination to achieve them.”


Considering these goals as a sort of a “to-do list for people and the planet”, Ban emphasized that it will take partnerships to make that happen. In that regard, he said, the Third International Conference on Small Islands Developing States in Samoa last year laid a pathway for collective action and success within the post-2015 development agenda.


But, as the world prepares for a new sustainability framework and the sustainable development goals, a number of critical partnership areas must be strengthened, in particular the need for capacity building; financing; access to technology; and improved data collection and statistics.

Member States also must continue working together to link the global agenda to regional agendas and to deepen regional integration and to address the “unique needs and vulnerabilities” of small island developing states and middle-income countries, such as the debt challenge.

“And we need to keep forging the way forward towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient development pathway that will benefit both people and the planet,” the Secretary-General underlined.

He gave the assurance that, through the Green Climate Fund, and in working with world leaders, he will continue to insist that small islands and least developed countries are top funding priorities.


“My main message to you is to remain fully engaged and keep working with us to strengthen our partnership during this vital year for humanity. Together, we can build a better, more sustainable world, for all.”

Later, in an address to an event on ending violence against women, the Secretary-General said the Caribbean has among the highest rates of sexual assault in the world. Three Caribbean countries are in the global top ten for recorded rapes. Moreover, he noted that in the eastern Caribbean, UNICEF estimates that child sexual abuse rates are between 20 and 45 per cent – meaning at least one in five precious children are affected. Most are girls who have no choice but to live close to their attacker.

“They desperately need our help. Too many women are afraid to seek help. One study showed that up to two thirds of all victims suffer without ever reporting the crime. I am outraged by this. Shame belongs to the perpetrators – not the victiWe have to change mindsets – especially among men,” declared the UN chief.

In that light, he said he was proud to be the first man to sign onto the UN’s HeForShecampaign, and he invited more men to take the HeForShe pledge.

“I encourage you to join UNICEF’s End Violence global campaign. And every day, I count on all of you to work for true equality.”


In the margins of the 36th meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community in Barbados, the Secretary-General met with Prime Minister Freundel Stuart, and Minister for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Maxine McClean, of Barbados, a country he congratulated for its upcoming leadership of CARICOM. More

 

 

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The future of alternative energy – Elon Musk’s PowerWall

 

 

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UNEP Report Proposes Pooling Facilities as Solution to Micro-grid Financing

April 2015: The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has launched a study on mini-grids that proposes ‘Mini-grid Pooling Facilities (MPFs)’ as a solution to overcoming key investment barriers. Presenting mini-grids as a critical solution for improving energy access globally, the study examines the challenges of associated investment risks and transaction costs, and proposes addressing these through project and capital pooling.

The report, titled ‘Increasing Private Capital Investment into Energy Access: The Case for Mini-grid Pooling Facilities’: provides an overview of mini-grids, including ownership models; identifies and examines two key investment barriers, namely risks to investment in emerging markets and project costs in developing economies; assesses the benefits and drawbacks of project pooling facilities; and explores MPF structures and stakeholders.


On risks, the study notes that mini-grids in emerging markets present a complex risk profile. In addition to discussing perceived risks, such as political or fuel cost volatility, the study examines risks to investment in mini-grids during the development, construction and operation phases, as well as across phases. The study also identifies high transaction costs in developing countries in the areas of project identification, evaluation and diligence, and platform development.


According to some estimates, achieving universal electricity access by 2030 will require mini-grids to serve over 65% of off-grid populations globally. Arguing for the need to develop new financing models to reach such levels of deployment, the report presents MPF as conceptual framework for private-sector financing that pools projects and capital to support the development of mini-grids internationally. According to the study, MPFs can diversify risk and increase capital requirements by strategic selection of projects into portfolios.


The report suggests that MPFs can also help: lower transaction costs through centralizing fixed expenses; decrease technology costs; attract previously unavailable capital; and leverage philanthropic investment, among others. The study stresses the need for developers, investors and researchers to work jointly, conducting proper analyses and determining the appropriate structures for each working context. [UNEP Publications Webpage] [Publication: Increasing Private Capital Investment into Energy Access] More

 

 

 

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